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Home > Staff > Personal pages > Génétique et Ecologie évolutives > Tatiana Giraud

Tatiana Giraud

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CNRS Research Director - UMR8079 ESE Co-Director

Directrice de Recherches CNRS
Directrice adjointe de l’UMR Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution
Professor at the "Ecole Polytechnique"

Address :

  • Evolution et Systématique Laboratoire ESE
  • Université Paris-Sud XI
  • Bâtiment 360
  • 91405 ORSAY Cedex

Contact :

Research Teaching Associate Editor Projects Responsabilities Curriculum Vitae Publications

Research Interests

Silene latifolia infected by Microbotryum violaceum,responsible for the anther smut disease

  • Speciation in fungal pathogens : theory, comparative analyses, population genetics, population genomics, experiments, mainly on Microbotryum violaceum, the fungus responsible for the anther smut disease on Caryuphyllaceae
  • Evolutionary causes responsible for plant disease emergence: host shifts and biological invasions
  • Cospeciation versus host jumps in parasites
  • Evolution of sex chromosomes in fungi
  • Evolution of mating types in eukaryotes, and in particular in fungi
  • Evolution of modes of reproduction and mating systems in fungi
  • Evolution of virulence and multiple infections in fungal plant pathogens , in particular in Microbotryum violaceum, and role of kin selection
    Experimental population of diseased Silene latifolia plants
  • Evolutionary processes acting in the domestication of cheese fungi (Penicillium)
  • Spéciation, domestication et différenciation entre populations chez les pommiers (Malus domestica, Malus sylvestris, Malus sieversii)

Teaching assignments

Sampling apple trees

  • Ecology and Evolution, Ecole Polytechnique
  • Host-symbiont association, speciation, University of Orsay

Associate Editor

  • 2005-2012 Genetica
  • 2009-2012 Infections, Genetics and Evolution
  • 2010-present Molecular Ecology
  • 2010-present Frontieres in Mycology


  • ERC Proof of Concept Grant 2017-2019 BLUE
  • ERC grant 2013-2018 GenomFun Adaptive divergence in fungi
  • ANR GANDALF 2012-2016 : Genomic AND Adaptation for fungal LiFe history traits involved in host plant interactions.
  • Interdisciplinary project (PIR CNRS) 2012 : médiation de la Biodiversité
  • 2009 -2012 : PI of the ANR project « Fungi sex – Evolution of fungal mating types and fungal sex chromosomes”
  • 2008-2010 Co-PI of the ANR project Emerfundis «Emerging fungal diseases» with J. Carlier (CIRAD - UMR BGPI)
  • 2006 -2010 : PI of the ANR project « SpeciaFonge - Specificities of speciation in fungal pathogens: impact of life cycles, genetic systems, coevolution and genomic fluidity”
  • 2003-2006: PI of the ANR project ACI JC « Speciation in parasites »
    The invasive plant Ambrosia artimisiifolia


- Deputy head of the ESE lab

- CNRS panel member for hiring young scientist in interdisciplinary fields

- University Paris Sud panel member for hiring assistant professors and professors

Curriculum vitae

2017 Research Prize from the French Society of Ecology
2017 Grand Prix scientifique from the Louis D. Fondation Institut de France (French Academy of Sciences)
2015 CNRS silver medal
2009 Senior CNRS scientist
2006 Bronze CNRS medal
15/06/04 HDR. Soutenue le 15 juin 2004 à l’Université Paris Sud (XI).
Since 2001 CNRS scientist at the University Paris Sud
2000 – 2001 post-doc, University Paris Sud
1999 – 2000 post-doc, University Lausanne, Laurent Keller lab
1998-1999 assistant professor, University Paris 13, Pierre Jaisson lab
1995-1998 PhD, INRA Versailles, Yves Brygoo lab
1995 Master 2 Biodiversity and Evolution, University Paris 6, Pierre Capy lab
1992-1995 INA-PG



Abbate J, Gladieux P, Hood ME, de Vienne DM, Antonovics JA, Snirc A, and Giraud T (2018)-Co-occurrence among three divergent plant-castrating fungi in the same Silene host species.Mol Ecol,In press   

Branco S, Carpentier F, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Badouin H, Snirc A, Le Prieur S, Coelho M, de Vienne D.M., Hartmann F, Begerow D, Hood ME, Giraud T. (2018)-Multiple convergent supergene evolution events in mating-type chromosomes. Nature Communications,   

Giraud T. and Mank J. (2018)-Dosage compensation by upregulation of maternal X alleles in both males and females in young plant sex chromosomes.Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology,doi: 10.24072/pci.evolbiol.10004   

Hartmann FE, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, Brandenburg JT, Carpentier F, Giraud T (2018)-Gene presence–absence polymorphism in castrating anther-smut fungi: recent gene gains and phylogeographic structureGBE,10:1298-1314   

Kobmoo Noppol, Duangdao Wichadakul, Arnarmnart Nuntanat,Rodríguez de la Vega RC, Luangsa-Ard Janet-Jennifer and Giraud Tatiana (2018)-A genome scan of diversifying selection in the ant-zombi Ophiocordyceps unilateralis complex of entomopathogenic fungi supports a role of enterotoxins in coevolution and host-specificity.Mol Ecol,In press


Badouin H, Gladieux P, Gouzy J, Siguenza S, Aguileta G, Snirc A, Le Prieur S, Jeziorski C, Branca A and Giraud T. (2017)-Widespread selective sweeps throughout the genome of model plant pathogenic fungi and identification of effector candidates. Mol Ecol,ddoi: 10.1111/mec.13976   

Branco S, Badouin H, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Gouzy J, Carpentier F, Aguileta G, Siguenza S, Brandenburg JT, Coelho M, Hood ME, Giraud T (2017)-Evolutionary strata on young mating-type chromosomes despite lack of sexual antagonism.PNAS,10.1073/pnas.1701658114   

Coelho Marco A., Bakkeren Guus , Sun Sheng , Hood Michael E. and Giraud Tatiana (2017)-Fungal sex : the Basidiomycota. In : The Fungal Kingdom. Eds, Joseph Heitman, Barbara Howlett, Pedro Crous, Eva Stukenbrock, Timothy James, and Neil Gow. ASP Press.,   

Dupont Joëlle, Dequin Sylvie, Giraud Tatiana, Le Tacon François, Marsit Souhir, Ropars Jeanne, Richard Franck, Selosse Marc-André. (2017)-Fungi as food sources. In : The Fungal Kingdom. Eds, Joseph Heitman, Barbara Howlett, Pedro Crous, Eva Stukenbrock, Timothy James, and Neil Gow. ASP Press.,   

Feurtey A, Cornille A, Shykoff JA, Snirc A and Giraud T (2017)-Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe. Evolutionary applications,In press   

Giraud T, Koskella B, Laine AL (2017)-Microbial local adaptation: insights from natural populations, genomics and experimental evolution.Mol Ecol,In press   

Giraud Tatiana and Gabaldón Toni (2017)-Dating nodes in a phylogeny using inferred horizontal gene transfers.PCI Evol Biol,doi: 10.24072/pci.evolbiol.10003   

Petit E, Silver C, Cornille A, Gladieux P, Rosenthal L, Bruns E, Yee S, Antonovics J, Giraud T, Hood ME (2017)-Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts.Mol Ecol,In press   

Ropars J, Lopez-Villavicencio, M, Snirc A, Giraud T. (2017)-Blue cheese-making has shaped the population genetic structure of the mould Penicillium roqueforti.PLoS One.,In press   


Aguileta G., Badouin H., Hood M. E., Møller A.P., Le Prieur S., Snirc A, Siguenza S., Mousseau T.A., Shykoff J.A., Cuomo C.A., and Giraud T. (2016)-Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.Mol Ecol.,In press   

Ali S, Soubeyrand S, Gladieux P, Giraud T, Leconte M, Gautier A, Mboup M, de Vallavieille-Pope C and Enjalbert J. (2016)-CloNcaSe: Estimation of sex frequency and effective population size by clonemate re-sampling in partially clonal organisms. Mol Ecol Res. ,In press   

Bueker B, Eberlein C, Gladieux P, Schaefer A, Snirc A, Bennett DJ, Begerow D, Hood ME, Tatiana Giraud T (2016)-Distribution and population structure of the anther smut fungus Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.Mol Ecol,In press   

Decroocq S, Cornille A, Tricon D, Babayeva S, Chague A, Eyquard J-P, Karychev R, Dolgikh S, Kostritsyna T, Liu S, Liu W, Wenjuan G, Kang L, Asma Bayram M, Akparov Z, Giraud T, Decroocq V. (2016)-New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricot and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.Mol Ecol.,   

Feurtey A, Gladieux P, Snirc A, Hood M, Cornille A, Rosenthal L, Giraud, T (2016)-Strong phylogeographic costructure between the anther fungus and its white campion host.New Phytol,   

Fortuna TM, Snirc A, Badouin H, Gouzy J, Siguenza S, Esquerre D, Le Prieur S, Shykoff JA, and Giraud T.  (2016)-Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tetrapolar anther-smut fungus Microbotryum saponariae based on genome sequencing.PLoS One,In press

Giraud H, Cornille A, Giraud T (2016)-Pommiers sauvage et cultivé : ce que la génétique nous apprend de leurs liens passés et présents sur leurs conservation et réimplantation futures.Forêt Entreprise. Juillet,   

Rodríguez de la Vega, RC., and Giraud T. (2016)-Intragenome diversity of gene families encoding toxin-like proteins in venomous animals.Integr. Comp. Biol. ,   

Ropars J, Lo YC, Dumas E, Snirc A, Begerow D, Rollnik T, Lacoste S, Dupont J, Giraud T, Lopez-Villavicencio, M. (2016)-Fertility depression among cheese-making Penicillium roqueforti strains suggests degeneration during domestication.Evolution.,   

Ropars J, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, López-Villavicencio M, Gouzy J, Dupont J, Swennen D, Dumas E, Giraud T, and Branca A (2016)-Diversity and mechanisms of genomic adaptation in Penicillium. In Aspergillus and Penicillium in the post-genomic era.De Vries R ed. ,   


Badouin H, Hood ME, Gouzy J, Aguileta G, Siguenza S, Perlin MH, Cuomo C, Fairhead C, Branca A, Giraud T (2015)-Chaos of rearrangements in in the mating-type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae.Genetics,In press   

Cornille A., Feurtey A, Gélin U, Misvanderbrugge K., Gladieux P, Ropars J, Giraud T. (2015)-Anthropogenic and natural drivers of gene flow in a temperate wild fruit tree: a basis for conservation and breeding programs in apples.Evol App.,In press   

Fontanillas E, Hood ME, Badouin H, Petit E, Barbe V, Gouzy J, de Vienne DM, Aguileta G, Poulain J, Wincker P, Chen Z, Toh, SS, Cuomo C, Perlin MH, Gladieux P, Giraud T (2015)-Degeneration of the non-recombining regions in the mating type chromosomes of the anther smut fungi.Mol Biol Evol,In press   

Gillot G, Jany J-L, Coton M, Le Floch G, Debaets S, Ropars J, López-Villavicencio M, Dupont J, Branca A, Giraud T, Coton E. (2015)-Insights into Penicillium roqueforti genetic diversity.PLoS One,In press   

Gladieux P, Feurtey A, Hood ME, Snirc A, Clavel J, Dutech C, Roy M, Giraud T. (2015)-The population biology of fungal invasions. Mol Ecol.,In press   

Idnurm A, Hood ME, Johannesson H and Giraud T. (2015)-Contrasted patterns in mating-type chromosomes in fungi: hotspots versus coldspots of recombination.Fung. Biol. Rev.,In press   

Leforestier D, Ravon E, Muranty H, Cornille A, Lemaire C, Giraud T, Durel, CE, Branca A (2015)-Investigating the genomic bases of the differences between cider and dessert apple varietiesEvol. App.,In press   

Perlin MH, Amselem J, Fontanillas E, Toh SS, Chen Z, Goldberg J, Duplessis S, Henrissat B, Young S, Zeng Q, Aguileta G, Petit E, Badouin H, Andrews J, Razeeq D, Gabaldón T, Quesneville H, Giraud T, Hood ME, Schultz D, Cuomo CA. (2015)-Sex and Parasites: Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus.BMC Genomics,In press   

Pintye A, Ropars J, Harvey N, Shin HD, Leyronas C, Nicot PC, Giraud T, Kiss L.  (2015)-Host phenology and geography as drivers of differentiation in generalist mycoparasites.PLoS One,In press   

Ropars J, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, López-Villavicencio M, Gouzy J, Sallet E, Dumas E, Lacoste S, Debuchy R, Dupont J, Branca A and Giraud T (2015)-Adaptive horizontal gene transfers between multiple cheese-associated fungi.Current Biology,In press   

Yao JL, Xu J, Cornille A, Tomes S, Karunairetnam S, Luo Z, Bassett H, Whitworth C, Rees-George J, Ranatunga C, Snirc A, Crowhurst R, de Silva N, Kumar S, Chagne D, Bus V, Volz R, Rikkerink E, Gardiner S, Giraud T, MacDiarmid R, Newcomb R and Gleave A (2015)-microRNA allele that emerged prior to apple domestication may underlie fruit size evolution. The Plant Journal,In press   


Aguileta G, de Vienne DM, Ross ON, Hood ME, Giraud T, Petit E, and Gabaldón T. (2014)-High variability of mitochondrial gene order in basidiomycetes. Genome Biology and Evolution,In press   

Buono L, Lopez-Villavicencio M, Shykoff JA, Snirc A, Giraud T (2014)-Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite PLoS One,In press   

Cheeseman K, Ropars J, Renault, P, Dupont J, Gouzy J,  Branca A, Ceppi M, Debuchy R, Malagnac F, Goarin A, Silar P, Lacoste S, Sallet E, Bensimon A, Giraud T, Brygoo Y. (2014)-Recent horizontal transfer of a large genomic region between cheese fungiNature Communications,In press   

Cornille A, Giraud T, Smulders MJM, Roldán-Ruiz I, and Gladieux P. (2014)-The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.Trends in Genetics,In press   

Gibson AK, Refrégier G, Hood, ME, and Giraud T. (2014)-Performance of a hybrid fungal pathogen on pure species and hybrid host plants.Int J Plant Sci,Sous presse   

Giraud Héloïse, Cornille Amandine et Giraud Tatiana (2014)-Les pérégrinations du pommier domestique.Pour la Science.,   

Gladieux P, Ropars R, Badouin H, Branca A, Aguileta G, de Vienne DM, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Branco S, Giraud T. (2014)-Invited Review : Fungal evolutionary genomics provide insights into the mechanisms of adaptive divergence in eukaryotes. Mol Ecol,Sous Presse   

Ropars J , López-Villavicencio M, Dupont J, Snirc A , Gillot G, Coton M, Jany JL, Coton E, Giraud T (2014)-Sexual reproduction and genetic diversity in the cheese fungus Penicillium roqueforti.Evolutionary Applications,In press   

Ropars J, Aguileta G, de Vienne DM and Giraud T. (2014)-Massive gene swamping among cheese making Penicillium fungi Microbial Cell,In press   

Yuan JH, Cornille A, Giraud T, Zhou SL, Cheng FY (2014)-Independent domestication of the common and flare tree peonies from different wild species. Mol Ecol ,In press   


Andrew RL, Bernatchez L, Bonin A, Buerkle AC, Carstens BC, Emerson BC, Garant D, Giraud T, Kane NC, Rogers NC, Slate J, Smith H, Sork VL, Stone GN, Vines TH, Waits L, Widmer A, and Rierseberg LH (2013)-A Roadmap for Molecular Ecology.Molecular Ecology,22:2605-2626   

Cornille A., Giraud T., Bellard C., Tellier A, Le Cam B., Smulders R., Kleinschmit J, Roldan-Ruiz I, Gladieux P. (2013)-Post-glacial recolonization of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild relative of the domesticated apple.Mol Ecol.,doi: 10.1111/mec.12231   

Cornille A., Gladieux P., Giraud T. (2013)-Diversification in the genus Malus.Acta Botanica Gallica,In press

Cornille A., Gladieux P., Giraud T. (2013)-Crop-to-wild gene flow and spatial genetic structure in the closest wild relatives of the cultivated apple.Evolutionary Applications,In press   

de Vienne DM, Giraud T and Gouyon PH. (2013)-Lineage selection and the maintenance of sex.PLoS One,8(6):1-11   

de Vienne DM, Refrégier G, López-Villavicencio M, Tellier A, Hood ME and Giraud T. (2013)-Tansley Review:  Cospeciation vs host-shift speciation: methods for testing, evidence from natural associations, and relation to coevolution.New Phytologist,In press   

Fontaine MC, Austerlitz F, Giraud T, Daciana P, Richard-Cervera S and Delmotte (2013)-Genetic signature of a range expansion after recent invasion in Europe of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticolaMol Ecol,In press   

Fontaine MC, Gladieux P, Hood ME, and Giraud T (2013)-History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America.New Phytologist,15 pages   

Fournier E, Gladieux P, and Giraud T (2013)-The “Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus”: noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes.Evolutionary Applications,In press

Gladieux P, Devier B, Aguileta G, Cruaud A and Giraud T (2013)-Purifying selection after episodes of  diversifying selection in plant pathogens.Inf Genet Evol,17:123-131   

Hood ME, Petit Elsa and Giraud Tatiana (2013)-Extensive divergence between mating type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungus.Genetics,1-8   

López-Villavicencio M, Debets AJM, Slakhorst M, Giraud T, Schoustra S.  (2013)-Deleterious effects of recombination and possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex in a fungal model J Evol Biol,In press   

Luque G, Giraud T, Courchamp F (2013)-Allee effects through caste interaction feedback in ants.J Anim Ecology,In press

Nieuwenhuis BPS, Billiard S, Vuilleumier S, Petit E, Hood ME and Giraud T. (2013)-Evolutionary advantages and drawbacks of bi-versus tetrapolarity in mating type determinism.Heredity,In press

Selosse MA, Taschen E and Giraud T (2013)-Avoiding sex harassment in black truffles by linking mating type and vegetative incompatibility?New Phytol.,In press   


Aguileta G, Lengelle J, Chiapello H, Giraud T, Viaud M, Fournier E, Rodolphe F, Marthey S, Gendrault-Jacquemard A, Wincker P, Dossat C, and Gout L (2012)-Genes under positive selection in Botrytis.Infection, Genetics and Evolution.,In press   

Billiard S, Lopez-Villavicencio M, Hood ME and Giraud T  (2012)-Why sex, outcrossing and mating types? Unsolved questions in fungi and beyond.J Evol Biol. ,   

Cornille A. , Gladieux P., Smulders R., Roldan-Ruiz I. , Laurens F. , Le Cam B., Nersesyan A., Clavel J., Olonova M., Feugey L., Gabrielian I., Zang X.G.., Tenaillon M., Giraud T (2012)-New insights into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution by several wild species to the genome of cultivated varieties.PloS Genet.,8,5:e1002703   

Dilmaghani A, Gladieux P, Gout L, Giraud T, Brunner P, Grandaubert J, Stachowiak A, Balesdent M-H and Rouxel T  (2012)-Migration patterns and changes in population biology associated with the worldwide spread of the oilseed rape pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans.Mol Ecol,1-15   

Gibson AK, Hood ME, and Giraud T  (2012)-Sibling competition arena: selfing and a competition arena can combine to constitute a barrier to gene flow in sympatry.Evolution,954:1-14   

Giraud T and Gourbière S (2012)-The tempo and modes of evolution of reproductive isolation in fungi.Heredity,1-11   

Lê Van A., Gladieux P., Lemaire C., Cornille A., Giraud T., Durel C.-E., Caffier V. and Le Cam B. (2012)-Evolution of pathogenicity traits in the apple scab fungal pathogen in response to the domestication of its host.Evolutionary Applications,In press   

Petit E, Giraud T, Damien M. de Vienne, Marco Coelho, Gabriela Aguileta, Joëlle Amselem, Jonathan Kreplak, Julie Poulain, Frédérick Gavory, Patrick Wincker, Young S, Cuomo  C and Michael E. Hood (2012)-Linkage to the mating-type locus across the genus Microbotryum: insights into non-recombining chromosomes.Evolution,1-15   

Ropars J, Dupont J, Fontanillas E, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, Coton M, Giraud T, Malagnac F, López-Villavicencio M. (2012)-Sex in cheese: evidence for sexuality in the fungus Penicillium roquefortiPLoS One,7,11:1-9   


Aguileta G., and Giraud T. (2011)-Application of codon models to the study of fungal genome evolution. In: Codon Evolution. Mechanisms and Models. Gina M. Cannarozzi and Adrian Schneider (eds.) Oxford University Press. ,In press   

Amselem et al.  (64 authors including Giraud T) (2011)-Genomic analysis of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.PloS Genetics,7:e1002230   

Billiard S, Lopez-Villavicencio M, Devier B, Hood ME, Fairhead C, Giraud T. (2011)-Having sex, yes, but with whom? Inferences from fungi on the evolution of anisogamy and mating types.Biological Reviews.,86:421-442   

Cai Lei, Giraud Tatiana, Zhang Ning, Begerow Dominik, Cai Guohong and Shivas Roger G (2011)-The evolution of species concept and species recognition criteria in plant pathogenic fungi.Fungal Diversity,46:121-131   

Gaudeul M, Giraud T, Kiss L, and Shykoff JA (2011)-Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites show multiple introductions in the worldwide invasion history of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae).PLoS One,6:e17658   

Giraud T. and Shykoff JA. (2011)-Bacterial Cooperation and Virulence : kin selection versus infectivity.Heredity,107:277-278   

Gladieux P, Giraud T, Shykoff JA, Genton B, Jonot O and Kiss L. (2011)-Distinct invasion sources of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Eastern and Western Europe.Biological invasions.,13:933-944   

Gladieux P, Guérin F, Giraud T , Caffier V, Parisi L, Didelot F, Lemaire C, Le Cam B. (2011)-Emergence of novel fungal pathogens by ecological speciation: importance of the reduced viability of immigrants.Mol Ecol,20:4521-4532   

Gladieux P, Vercken E, Fontaine MC, Hood ME, Jonot O, Couloux A and Giraud T  (2011)-Maintenance of fungal pathogen species that are specialized to different hosts: allopatric divergence and introgression through secondary contact.Mol Biol Evol,28:459-471   

Kiss L, Pintye A, Kovacs GM, Jankovics T, Fontaine MC, Harvey N, Xu X, Nicot P, Bardin M, Shykoff JA and Giraud T (2011)-Temporal isolation explains host-related genetic differentiation in a group of widespread mycoparasitic fungi.Mol. Ecol.,20:1492-1507   

López-Villavicencio M,  Courjol F, Gibson AK, Hood ME, Jonot O, Shykoff JA and Giraud T (2011)-Competition, cooperation among kin and virulence in multiple infections.Evolution,65:1357-1366   


Aguileta G, Lengelle J, Marthey S, Chiapello H, Rodolphe F, Gendrault-JacquemardA., Yockteng R, Vercken E, Devier B, Fontaine MC, Wincker P, Dossat C, Cruaud C, Couloux A, Giraud T. (2010)-Finding candidate genes under positive selection in non-model species: examples of genes involved in host specialization in pathogens.Molecular Ecology,19:292–306   

Barberousse A., Bierne N., Britton-Davidian J., Capy P., Desdevises Y., Giraud, T., Jousselin E., Moulia C., Ravigné V., Samadi S., Smadja C. (2010)-La spéciation. In : Thomas F., Lefèvre T., Raymond M., Biologie Evolutive : De Boeck. ,Sous presse

Devier B., Aguileta G., Hood ME, Giraud T. (2010)-Using phylogenies of pheromone receptor genes in the Microbotryum violaceum species complex to investigate possible speciation by hybridizationMycologia,102(3):689-696   

Giraud F., Giraud T., Aguileta A., Fournier E., Samsond R., Cruaud C., Lacoste S., Tellier A., Dupont J. (2010)-Microsatellite loci for identification of Penicillium starter cultures used in cheese production and for their discrimination from contaminant species.International Journal of Food Microbiology,137:204-213   

Giraud T, Gladieux P, Gavrilets S. (2010)-Linking emergence of fungal plant diseases and ecological speciation.Trends Ecol Evol,25:387–395   

Giraud T. (2010)-Participation aux films CNRS-MNHN 2009 : Evolution-des clés pour comprendre,

Gladieux P, Byrnes E, Fisher M, Aguileta G, Heitman J, and Giraud T (2010)-Epidemiology and evolution of fungal pathogens, in plants and animals. In : Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases.Ed Tibayrenc M. Elsevier.,

Hood, M. E., Mena-Alí, J. I., Gibson, A. K., Oxelman, B., Giraud, T., Yockyeng, R., Arroyo, M. T. K., Conti, F., Pedersen, A., Gladieux, P, and Antonovics, J. (2010)-Distribution of the anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum on species of the Caryophyllaceae.New Phytologist,187:217-229   

Johnson JJ, Giraud T, Anderson R and Hood M. E. (2010)-The impact of genome defense on mobile elements in Microbotryum.Genetica,138:313-319   

López-Villavicencio M., Aguileta G, Giraud T., de Vienne DM, Lacoste S., Couloux A., Dupont J. (2010)-Sex in Penicillium: a phylogenetic and experimental approach.Fung. Genet. Biol.,47:693-706   

Refrégier G, Hood, ME and Giraud T (2010)-No evidence of Reproductive Character Displacement between two sister fungal species causing anther smut disease in SileneInternational Journal of Plant Sciences,171(8):847–859   

Tellier A, de Vienne DM, Giraud T , Hood ME and Refrégier G. (2010)-Theory and examples of reciprocal influence between hosts and pathogens, from short-term to long term interactions: coevolution, cospeciation and pathogen speciation following host shifts. In: Host-Pathogen Interactions: Genetics, Immunology and PhysiologyNova Science Publishers, NY. ,

Vercken E, Fontaine MC, Gladieux P, Hood ME, Jonot O, and Giraud T (2010)-Glacial refugia in pathogens: European genetic structure of anther smut pathogens on Silene latifolia and S. dioica.PloS Pathogens,6:e1001229:1-14   

Vogel V., Pedersen JS., Giraud T., Krieger MJB., and Keller L. (2010)-The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant.Diversity and Distributions,16:170-186   


Aguileta G, Refrégier G, Yockteng R, Giraud T (2009)-Invited review: Rapidly evolving genes in pathogens: methods for detecting positive selection and examples among fungi, bacteria, viruses and protozoa.Infections, Genetics and Evolution.,9:656–670   

Aguileta G., Hood ME., Refrégier G. and Giraud T. (2009)-Genome evolution in pathogenic and symbiotic fungi.Advances in Botanical Research.,49:151-193   

Bernasconi G., J. Antonovics, A. Biere, D. Charlesworth, L.F. Delph, D. Filatov, T. Giraud, J. Goudet, G. Marais, D. McCauley, J. Pannell, J.A. Shykoff, B. Vyskot, A. Widmer, L. Wolfe (2009)-Silene as a model system in ecology and evolutionHeredity,1-10   

De Vienne DM, Giraud T, Martin O (2009)-In response to comment on ‘A congruence index for testing topological similarity between trees’Bioinformatics,25:150-151   

De Vienne DM, Hood ME, Giraud T. (2009)-Phylogenetic determinants of potential host shifts in fungal pathogensJEB,   

De Vienne DM, Refrégier G, Hood ME, Guigue A, Devier B, Vercken E, Smadja C, Deseille A, and Giraud T (2009)-Hybrid sterility and inviability in the parasitic fungal species complex MicrobotryumJ Evol Biol,22:683-698   

Denchev CM, Giraud T. & Hood ME (2009)-Three new species of anthericolous smut fungi on Caryophyllaceae. Mycologica Balcanica,6:79-84   

Devier B, Aguileta G, Hood ME, Giraud T. (2009)-Ancient trans-specific polymorphism at pheromone receptor genes in basidiomycetes.Genetics,181:209-223   

Giraud T et Penet L (2009)-Le sexe, source de diversité : la Reine Rouge.In : Aux Origines du Sexe.Ed. Pierre-Henri Gouyon. Editions Fayard.,

Giraud T, Carlier J (2009)-Emerfundis: impact of global changes on the emergence of new plant diseases.Biofutur,297:39

Gold A.D., Giraud T., Hood M.E. (2009)-Within-host competitive exclusion among species of the anther smut pathogenBMC Ecol,9:11   

Gouyon P.H., Giraud T. (2009)-Le sexe et l'évolution. In : Les mondes darwiniens, Les sciences de l’évolution aujourd’hui. Ed. Thomas Heams, Philippe Huneman, Guillaume Lecointre, Marc Silberstein.Editions Syllepse.,Sous presse

Gouyon PH et Giraud T (2009)-Le sexe ou la mort.In : Aux Origines du Sexe.Ed. Pierre-Henri Gouyon. Editions Fayard.,


Aguileta G., Marthey S., Chiapello H., Lebrun M.-H., Rodolphe F., Fournier E., Gendrault-Jacquemard A. and Giraud T. (2008)-Assessing the performance of single-copy genes for recovering robust phylogenies.Syst Biol,57:1-15   

Fournier E. and Giraud T. (2008)-Sympatric genetic differentiation of populations of a generalist pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, on two different host plants, grapevine and bramble.J Evol Biol,21:122-132   

Giraud T, Yockteng R, Marthey S, Chiapello H, Jonot O, Lopez-Villavicencio M, de Vienne DM, Hood ME, Refrégier G, Gendrault-Jacquemard A, Wincker P and Dossat C. (2008)-Isolation of 60 polymorphic microsatellite loci in EST libraries of four sibling species of the phytopathogenic fungal complex Microbotryum.Molecular Ecology Resources,8:387-392   

Giraud T., Enjalbert J., Fournier E., Dutech C., and Delmotte F. (2008)-Population genetics of fungal diseases of plants. Parasite,15:449-454   

Giraud T., Refrégier G., de Vienne DM., Le Gac M. and Hood ME. (2008)-Speciation in fungi.Fung. Genet. Biol. ,45:791-802   

Giraud T., Yockteng R., Lopez-Villavicencio M., Refrégier G. and Hood ME. (2008)-Invited Mini-Review: the mating system of Microbotryum violaceum: selfing under heterothallism.Eukaryotic cell,7:765-775   

Le Gac M. and Giraud T. (2008)-Existence of a pattern of reproductive character displacement in Basidiomycota but not in Ascomycota.J Evol Biol,21:761-772   

Marthey S, Aguileta G, Rodolphe F, Gendrault-Jacquemard A, Giraud T, Fournier E, Lopez-Villavicencio M, Gautier A, Lebrun MH, and Chiapello H (2008)-FUNYBASE: the FUNGAL phYlogenomic database.BMC Bioinformatics,9:456   

Refrégier G., Le Gac M., Jabbour F., Widmer A., Shykoff JA., Yockteng R., Hood ME., and Giraud T. (2008)-The anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: prevalent host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species.BMC Evol Biol,8:100   

Salvaudon L., Giraud T. and Shykoff JA. (2008)-Genetic diversity in natural populations: A fundamental component of plant-microbe interactions.Curr. Op. Plant Biology,11:135-143   

Sloan DB., Giraud T. and Hood ME. (2008)-Maximized virulence in a sterilizing pathogen: the anther-smut fungus and its co-evolved hosts.J Evol Biol,1544-1554:21   


De Vienne DM, Giraud T and Martin O. (2007)-A Congruence Index for Testing Topological Similarity between. Trees. Bioinformatics, 6 pages   

De Vienne DM, Giraud T and Shykoff JA (2007)  (2007)-When can host shifts produce congruent host and parasite phylogenies? A simulation approach.J Evol Biol,20:1428-1438   

Dutech C, Enjalbert E, Fournier E, Delmotte F, Barrès B, Carlier J, Tharreau D, and Giraud T (2007)-Challenges of microsatellite isolation in fungi. Fungal Genet Biol. ,44:933-949   

López-Villavicencio M, Jonot O, Coantic A, Hood, ME, Enjalbert J and Giraud T (2007)-Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains. PLoS Pathogens, 6 pages   

Le Gac M, Hood ME and Giraud T  (2007)-Evolution of reproductive isolation within a parasitic fungal complex. Evolution,61: 1781-1787   

Le Gac M, Hood ME, Fournier E, and Giraud T (2007)-Phylogenetic evidence of host-specific cryptic species in the anther smut fungus.Evolution ,61:15-26   

Tellier A., Villaréal L. and Giraud T. (2007)-Antagonistic pleiotropy may help population-level selection in maintaining genetic polymorphism for transmission rate in a model phytopathogenic fungus.Heredity,98:45-52   

Yockteng R. Marthey, S. Chiapello, H., Hood, ME, Rodolphe F., Gendrault-Jacquemard A, Devier, B., Wincker, P., Dossat, C. and Giraud, T. (2007)-Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes. BMC Genomics,8:272   


Giraud T  (2006)-Selection against migrant pathogens: The immigrant inviability barrier in pathogens. Heredity,97:316-318   

Giraud T.  (2006)-Speciation in parasites: host switching does not automatically lead to allopatry.Trends in Parasitology,22:151-152   

Giraud T. ,Villaréal L. ,Austerlitz F., Le Gac M., and Lavigne C. (2006)-Importance of the life cycle in host race formation and sympatric speciation in parasites.Phytopathology ,96:280-287   

Giraud, T., O. Jonot, and Shykoff, Ja. (2006)-Common sex-linked deleterious alelles in a parasitic fungus alter infection success but show no pleiotropic advantage.J. Evol. Biol. ,19:970-980   

Koskella B, Giraud T and M. E. Hood (2006)-Pathogen relatedness affects the prevalence of within-host competition.Am. Nat.,168:121-126   

Pedersen, J., M. Krieger, V. Vogel, T. Giraud, and L. Keller (2006)- Supercolonies of unrelated individuals in native populations of the invasive Argentine ant.Evolution,60:782-791   

Porcher, E., T. Giraud and C. Lavigne (2006)-Genetic differentiation in neutral markers and quantitative traits in selfing metapopulations: confronting theory and experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana.Genetical research ,87:1-12   


B . J. Genton, O. Jonot, D. Thévenet, E. Fournier, R. Blatrix, D. Vautrin, M. Solignac and T. Giraud (2005)-Isolation of five polymorphic microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia.Mol. Ecol. Notes,5: 381-383   

Fournier E., Giraud T., Albertini C., Brygoo Y. (2005)-Partition of the Botrytis cinerea complex in France using multiple gene genealogiesMycologia,,97(6):1251-1267   

Genton, B., J. A. Shykoff, and T. Giraud (2005)-High genetic diversity in French invasive populations of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia as a consequence of multiple sources of introduction. Mol. Ecol.,14:4275-4285   

Giraud T., Jonot O. & Shykoff J. A. (2005)-Common sex-linked deleterious alleles in a plant parasitic fungus alter infection success but show no pleiotropic advantage.J . EVOL . BIOL.,do i : 1 0 .1111:1420-9101   

Hood, M. E., M. Katawezik, et Giraud, T.  (2005)-Repeat-induced point mutation and the population structure of transposable elements in Microbotryum violaceum.Genetics ,170: 1081-1089   

López-Villavicencio M., Branca A., Giraud T. and Shykoff JA. (2005)-Sex-specific effect of Microbotryum violaceum (Uredinales) spores on healthy plants of the gynodioecious Gypsophila repens (Caryophyllaceae). Am. J. Bot.,92(5):896-900   

Tatiana Giraud,1 Odile Jonot, and Jacqui A. Shykoff (2005)-Selfing propensity under choice conditions in a parasitic Fungus, Microbotryum Violaceum, and parameters influencing infection success in artificial inoculations.Int. J. Plant Sci.,166(4):649-657   

Tellier, A., L. Villaréal, et T. Giraud (2005)-Maintenance of sex-linked deleterious alleles by selfing and group selection in metapopulations of the phytopathogenic fungus Microbotryum violaceum.Am. Nat ,165:577-589   


Giraud T. (2004)-Patterns of within population dispersion and mating of the fungus Microbotryum violaceum parasitising the plant Silene latifolia.Heredity,95: 559-565   

Giraud T. and L. Passera  (2004)-Pax Argentinica.Lettre des Amis du Muséum,220:56-57

Giraud T., L. Passera et al. (2004)-L'expansion coloniale de la fourmi d'Argentine.La Recherche ,372:52-54   

Le Gac, M. and T. Giraud (2004)-What is sympatric speciation in parasites?Trends in Parasitology ,20:207-208   

Porcher, E., T. Giraud, I. Goldringer and C. Lavigne (2004)-Experimental demonstration of a causal relationship between heterogeneity of selection and genetic differentiation at quantitative traits. Evolution ,58:1434-1445   

Till-Bottraud, I., T. Giraud, et al. (2004)-Isolation of seven microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the high Andean Asteraceae Chaetanthera pusilla.Mol. Ecol. Notes ,4:62-64   


Enjalbert J, Duan X, Vautrin D, Giraud T, de Vallavieille Pope C, Solignac M (2003)-Isolation of 12 microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the phytopathogenic fungus Puccinia striifomis f.sp. tritici.(sous presse)Mol. Ecol. Notes. ,3:65-67   

Fournier E, Levis C., Fortini D, Leroux P, Giraud T and Brygoo Y (2003)-Characterization of Bc-hch, the Botrytis cinerea homolog of the Neurospora crassa het-c vegetative incompatibility locus, and its use as population marker.Mycologia,95:251-261   

Thomas, A., Shykoff,J., Jonot, O., Giraud, T. (2003)-Sex-ratio bias in populations of the phytopathogenic fungus Microbotryum violaceum from several host species.Int. J. Plant Sci. ,164:641-647   


Brunet F, Giraud T, Fabienne G and Capy P (2002)-Do deletions of the Mos1-like elements occur randomly in the Drosophilidae family? J. Mol. Evol. ,54:227-234

Fournier, E., Giraud, T., Loiseau, A., Vautrin, D., Estoup, A., Solignac, M., Cornuet, J. M. and Brygoo, Y. (2002)-Isolation of ten microsatellite loci from a genomic sequence bank of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea (Ascomycota)Moecular Ecology Notes,sous presse:

Fournier, E., T. Giraud, et al. (2002)-Characterization of nine microsatellite loci in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea (Ascomycota).Molecular Ecology Notes,2:253-255   

Giraud T, Fournier E, Vautrin D, Solignac M, Vercken E, Bakan B and Brygoo Y  (2002)-Isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum.Mol. Ecol. Notes.,2(2):121-123   

Giraud T, Pedersen JS and Keller L (2002)-Evolution of supercolonies: the Argentine ants of Southern Europe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.,99:6075-6079   

Giraud T., Fournier E., Vautrin D., Solignac M., Vercken E., Bakan B. and Brygoo Y. (2002)-Isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorumMolecular Ecology Notes,2:121-123   

Giraud, T., Fournier, E., Vautrin, D., Solignac, M. and Shykoff, J. A. (2002)-Isolation of 44 polymorphic microsatellite loci in three host races of the phytopathogenic fungus Microbotryum violaceumMolecular Ecology Notes,2:142-146   

Muñoz G, Hinrichsen P, Brygoo Y and Giraud T (2002)-Genetic characterisation of Botrytis cinerea populations in Chile. Mycological Research,106(2):sous presse


Giraud T, Blatrix R, Poteaux C, Solignac M and Jaisson P (2001)-High genetic relatedness among nestmate queens in the polygynous ponerine ant Gnamptogenys striatula in Brazil. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.,49:128-134


Giraud T, Blatrix R, Poteaux C, Solignac M and Jaisson P (2000)-Population structure, mode of colony foundation and mating biology of the polygynous ponerine ant Gnamptogenys striatula in Brazil. Mol. Ecol. ,9(11):1835-1841   


Giraud T, Blatrix R, Solignac M and Jaisson P (1999)-Polymorphic DNA markers in the ant Gnamptogenys striatula. Mol. Ecol.,8:2141-2143

Giraud T, Fortini D, Levis C, Lamarque C, Leroux P, LoBuglio K and Brygoo Y (1999)-Two sibling species of the Botrytis cinerea complex,transposa and vacuma, are found in sympatry on numerous host plants.Phytopathology,89:967-973


Brygoo Y, Caffier V, Carlier J, Fabre J-V, Fernandez D, Giraud T, Mourichon X, Neema C, Notteghem J-L, Pope C, Tharreau D and Lebrun M-H (1998)-Reproduction and population structure in phytopathogenic fungi. In Molecular variability of fungal pathogens. P Bridge, Y Couteaudier and JM Clarkson, ed. CAB, UK. ,297-303

Giraud T, Levis C, Fortini D and Brygoo Y (1998)-The minisatellite MSB1 in the fungus Botrytis cinerea probably mutates by slippage. Mol. Biol. Evol. ,15:1524-1531   

Giraud T, Levis C, Fortini D, Leroux P et Brygoo Y (1998)-Plusieurs espèces sous le nom Botrytis cinerea! Phytoma-La défense des végétaux.,504:56-60

Leroux P, Chapeland F, Giraud T, Brygoo Y and Gredt M (1998)-Resistance to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors and various other fongicides in Borytis cinerea. In: Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds. Cook A,ed. Hampshire, UK. ,133-148


Giraud T, Levis C, Fortini D, Leroux P and Brygoo Y (1997)-RFLP markers show genetic recombination in Botrytis cinerea and transposable elements reveal two sympatric species.Mol. Biol. Evol.,14:1177-1185   

Levis C, Giraud T, Fortini D and Brygoo Y (1997)-Telomeric DNA of Botrytis cinerea: a useful tool for strain identification.FEMS Microbiol. Letter,157:267-272   


Giraud T and Capy P (1996)-Somatic activity of the mariner transposable element in natural populations of Drosophila simulans. Proc. R. Soc. B Lond., 263:1481-1486